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Alabama (2) x clear facets
Chicago Defender Archives Individuals Files
Founded by Robert S. Abbott in 1905, the Chicago Defender is one of America's longest-running African American newspapers. The Defender is best known for having spurred the Great Migration of African Americans from the southern United States to the nation's urban centers in the north—especially Chicago—during the first decades of the 20th century. The Defender also paved the way for
Joanne Marten Photographs
Joanne Marten was a graduate student of photography in the Institute of Design, Illinois Institute of Technology's school of design.